ETH Zürich » Computer Science » Theory » Cryptography

Symmetric Cryptography and Hash Functions

Research Highlights

  • New theory of pseudo-randomness proofs. An abstract theory for pseudo-randomness proofs is presented in [MT09]. It allows to simplify, unify, and generalize a large body of results in the literature.
  • Cascade encryption revisited. The security of cascade block-cipher encryption is an important and well-studied problem in theoretical cryptography with practical implications. It is well-known that double encryption improves the security only marginally, leaving triple encryption as the shortest reasonable cascade. In a recent paper, Bellare and Rogaway showed that in the ideal cipher model, triple encryption is significantly more secure than single and double encryption. Three contributions are made in [GM09]: First, we point out and correct some errors in the paper of Bellare and Rogaway, re-establishing the lower bound on the security of triple encryption up to a constant factor. Second, a new lemma extending Maurer's theory of random systems allows us to rephrase their proof into this framework, thus making the argument more abstract and hence easy to follow. Finally, this reformulation allows us to prove a generalization of the theorem, addressing the security of longer cascades.
  • Efficient symmetric cryptography under very weak assumptions. In contrast to the standard notion of a pseudo-random function (PRF), which is indistinguishable from a random function for a computationally-bounded adversary asking arbitrarily many queries (within its running time constraint), the new notion of an s-query weak PRF was introduced in [MT08]. Such a function need only be secure against an adversary who obtains a fixed number s (e.g. s=2) of input-output pairs and, moreover, the inputs are random (not chosen). It is shown that provably-secure encryption can be obtained from an s-query weak PRF essentially as efficiently as from a full-fledged PRF.
  • Pseudo-random generators from one-way functions. In a seminal paper, Hastad, Impagliazzo, Levin, and Luby showed that pseudo-random generators exist if and only if one-way functions exist. The construction they propose to obtain a pseudo-random generator from an n-bit one-way function uses O(n^8) random bits in the input (which is the most important complexity measure of such a construction). In [Hol06a] a significantly simplified and improved reduction is presented
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Publication Concerning This Topic

Peter Gaži
Plain versus Randomized Cascading-Based Key-Length Extension for Block Ciphers
Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 2013, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 8042, pp. 551–570, Aug 2013, to appear.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Peter Gaži and Stefano Tessaro
Efficient and Optimally Secure Key-Length Extension for Block Ciphers via Randomized Cascading
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT 2012, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 7237, pp. 63–80, Apr 2012, this is the full version.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer, Andreas Rüedlinger, and Björn Tackmann
Confidentiality and Integrity: A Constructive Perspective
Theory of Cryptography — TCC 2012, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 7194, pp. 209–229, Mar 2012.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Simon Knellwolf and Dmitry Khovratovich
New Preimage Attacks Against Reduced SHA-1
CRYPTO, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 7417, pp. 367-383, 2012.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Simon Knellwolf, Willi Meier, and Mar{í}a Naya-Plasencia
Conditional Differential Cryptanalysis of Trivium and KATAN
Selected Areas in Cryptography, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 7118, pp. 200-212, 2011.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Simon Knellwolf and Willi Meier
Cryptanalysis of the Knapsack Generator
FSE, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 6733, pp. 188-198, 2011.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Björn Tackmann
On the Soundness of Authenticate-then-Encrypt: Formalizing the Malleability of Symmetric Encryption
Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, ACM, pp. 505–515, Oct 2010.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Jean-Philippe Aumasson, Jian Guo, Simon Knellwolf, Krystian Matusiewicz, and Willi Meier
Differential and Invertibility Properties of BLAKE
FSE, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 6147, pp. 318–332, 2010.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Simon Knellwolf, Willi Meier, and María Naya-Plasencia
Conditional Differential Cryptanalysis of NLFSR-Based Cryptosystems
ASIACRYPT, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 6477, pp. 130–145, 2010.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Shahram Khazaei, Simon Knellwolf, Willi Meier, and Deian Stefan
Improved Linear Differential Attacks on CubeHash
AFRICACRYPT, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, vol. 6055, pp. 407–418, 2010.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Anja Lehmann and Stefano Tessaro
A Modular Design for Hash Functions: Towards Making the Mix-Compress-Mix Approach Practical
Advances in Cryptology — ASIACRYPT 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 5912, pp. 364–381, Dec 2009.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Peter Gaži and Ueli Maurer
Cascade Encryption Revisited
Advances in Cryptology — ASIACRYPT 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 5912, pp. 37–51, Dec 2009.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Stefano Tessaro
Basing {PRF}s on Constant-Query Weak {PRF}s: Minimizing Assumptions for Efficient Symmetric Cryptography
Advances in Cryptology — ASIACRYPT 2008, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 5350, pp. 161–178, Dec 2008.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Krzysztof Pietrzak and Johan Sjödin
Weak Pseudorandom Functions in Minicrypt
Automata, Languages and Programming — ICALP 2008, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 5126, pp. 423–436, Jul 2008.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Stefano Tessaro
Domain Extension of Public Random Functions: Beyond the Birthday Barrier
Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 4622, pp. 187–204, Aug 2007, Full version available from http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/229.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Krzysztof Pietrzak and Johan Sjödin
Range Extension for Weak {PRF}s; The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 4515, pp. 517–533, May 2007.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Johan Sjödin
A Fast and Key-Efficient Reduction of Chosen-Ciphertext to Known-Plaintext Security
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 4515, pp. 498–516, May 2007.
Available files: [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Johan Sjödin
Weak Pseudorandomness and Unpredictability
PhD Thesis, {ETH Zurich}, 2007, ETH Series in Information Security and Cryptography, vol. 8, Hartung-Gorre Verlag, ISBN 3-86628-088-2.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Krzysztof Pietrzak and Johan Sjödin
Weak Pseudorandom Functions in Minicrypt
2007, Manuscript.
Available files: [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer, Yvonne Anne Oswald, Krzysztof Pietrzak, and Johan Sjödin
{L}uby-{R}ackoff Ciphers from Weak Round Functions?
Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/213, Jun 2006, http://eprint.iacr.org/2006. This is the full version of [MOPS06a].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer, Yvonne Anne Oswald, Krzysztof Pietrzak, and Johan Sjödin
{L}uby-{R}ackoff Ciphers from Weak Round Functions?
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 4004, pp. 391–408, May 2006, Proceedings version of [MOPS06b].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Thomas Holenstein
Pseudorandom Generators from One-Way Functions: A Simple Construction for Any Hardness
Theory of Cryptography Conference — TCC 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, pp. 443–461, Mar 2006.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Johan Sjödin
Domain Expansion of {MAC}s: Alternative Uses of the {FIL-MAC}
Cryptography and Coding 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 3796, pp. 168–185, Dec 2005.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Krzysztof Pietrzak
Composition Does Not Imply Adaptive Security
Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 3621, pp. 55–65, Aug 2005.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Mihir Bellare, Krzysztof Pietrzak, and Phillip Rogaway
Improved Security Analyses for {CBC} {MAC}s
Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 3621, pp. 527–545, Aug 2005.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Johan Sjödin
Single-key {AIL-MAC}s from any {FIL-MAC}
Automata, Languages and Programming — ICALP 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 3580, pp. 472–484, Jul 2005.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
Authentication Theory and Hypothesis Testing
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1350–1356, Jul 2000, Preliminary version: [Mau96c].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
A Unified and Generalized Treatment of Authentication Theory
Proc. 13th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science — STACS '96, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 1046, pp. 387–398, Feb 1996, Final version: [Mau00a].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and Pierre Schmid
A Calculus for Security Bootstrapping in Distributed Systems
Journal of Computer Security, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 55–80, 1996, Preliminary version: [MS94].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
New Information-Theoretic Bounds in Authentication Theory
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory — ISIT '95, IEEE, pp. 12, Sep 1995.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and James L. Massey
Cascade Ciphers: The Importance of Being First
Journal of Cryptology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 55–61, 1993, Preliminary version: [MM90b].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
Asymptotically-Tight Bounds on the Number of Cycles in Generalized de {B}ruijn-Good Graphs
Discrete Applied Mathematics, vol. 37, pp. 421–436, Jul 1992.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
A Simplified and Generalized Treatment of {L}uby-{R}ackoff Pseudorandom Permutation Generators
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT '92, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 658, pp. 239–255, May 1992.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
Conditionally-Perfect Secrecy and a Provably-Secure Randomized Cipher
Journal of Cryptology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 53–66, 1992, Preliminary version: [Mau90a].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
New Approaches to the Design of Self-Synchronizing Stream Ciphers
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT '91, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 547, pp. 458–471, May 1991.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and James L. Massey
Local Randomness in Pseudo-Random Sequences
Journal of Cryptology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 135–149, 1991, Preliminary version: [MM89].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer
A Provably-Secure Strongly-Randomized Cipher
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT '90, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 473, pp. 361–373, May 1990, Final version: [Mau92b].
Available files: [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and James L. Massey
Cascade Ciphers: The Importance of Being First
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory — ISIT '90, IEEE, pp. 118, Jan 1990, Final version: [MM93a].
Available files: [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
Ueli Maurer and James L. Massey
Perfect Local Randomness in Pseudo-Random Sequences
Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO '89, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 435, pp. 100–112, Aug 1989, Final version: [MM91a].
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]
James L. Massey, Ueli Maurer, and Muzhong Wang
Non-Expanding, Key-Minimal, Robustly-Perfect, Linear and Bilinear Ciphers
Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT '87, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, vol. 304, pp. 237–247, Apr 1987.
Available files: [ PS ] [ PDF ] [ Abstract ] [ BibTeX ]

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